2017

  • Nilsson, E., H. Bergström, A. Rutgersson, E. Podgrajsek, M. Wallin, G. Bergström, E. Dellwik, S. Landwehr, and B. Ward, 2017. Evaluating humidity and sea salt disturbances on CO2 flux measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. In review
  •  Bell, T. G., S. Landwehr, S. D. Miller, W. J. de Bruyn, A. Callaghan, B. Scanlon, B. Ward, M. Yang, and E. S. Saltzman, 2017. Estimation of bubbled-mediated air/sea gas exchange from concurrent DMS and CO2 transfer velocities at intermediate- high wind speeds. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. doi:10.5194/acp-2017-85
  • Fransson, A., M. Chierici, I. Skjelvan, A. Olsen, P. Assmy, A. K. Peterson, G. Spreen, and B. Ward, 2017. Effects of sea-ice and biogeochemical processes and storms on under ice water fCO2 during the winter-spring transition in the high arctic ocean: Implications for sea-air CO2 fluxes. J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1002/2016JC012478
  • Esters, L., S. Landwehr, G. Sutherland, T. Bell, K. H. Christensen, E. S. Saltzman, S. D. Miller, and B. Ward, 2017. Parameterizing air-sea gas transfer velocity with dissipation. J. Geophys. Res., 122. doi:10.1002/2016JC012088

2016

  • Bakker, D. C. E., B. Pfeil, C. S. Landa, N. Metzl, K. M. O’Brien, A. Olsen, K. Smith, C. Cosca, S. Harasawa, S. D. Jones, S.-I. Nakaoka, Y. Nojiri, U. Schuster, T. Stein- hoff, C. Sweeney, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, C. Wada, R. Wanninkhof, S. R. Alin, C. F. Balestrini, L. Barbero, N. R. Bates, A. A. Bianchi, F. Bonou, J. Boutin, Y. Bozec, E. F. Burger, W.-J. Cai, R. D. Castle, L. Chen, M. Chierici, K. Currie, W. Evans, C. Featherstone, R. A. Feely, A. Fransson, C. Goyet, N. Greenwood, L. Gregor, S. Hankin, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, J. Harlay, J. Hauck, M. Hoppema, M. P. Humphreys, C. W. Hunt, B. Huss, J. S. P. Ibánhez, T. Johannessen, R. Keeling, V. Kitidis, A. Körtzinger, A. Kozyr, E. Krasakopoulou, A. Kuwata, P. Landschützer, S. K. Lauvset, N. Lefévre, C. L. Monaco, A. Manke, J. T. Mathis, L. Merlivat, F. J. Millero, P. M. S. Monteiro, D. R. Munro, A. Murata, T. Newberger, A. M. Omar, T. Ono, K. Paterson, D. Pearce, D. Pierrot, L. L. Robbins, S. Saito, J. Salisbury, R. Schlitzer, B. Schneider, R. Schweitzer, R. Sieger, I. Skjelvan, K. F. Sullivan, S. C. Sutherland, A. J. Sutton, K. Tadokoro, M. Telszewski, M. Tuma, S. M. A. C. van Heuven, D. Vandemark, B. Ward, A. J. Watson, and S. Xu, 2016. A multi- decade record of high-quality fCO2 data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8:383–413. doi:10.5194/essd-8-383-2016
  • Rabault, J., G. Sutherland, B. Ward, K. Christensen, T. Halsne, and A. Jensen, 2016. Measurements of waves in landfast ice using inertial motion units. IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2016.2584182
  • Sutherland, G., L. Marié, G. Reverdin, K. J. Christensen, G. Bröstrom, and B. Ward, 2016. The diurnal jet and enhanced turbulence in the restratified ocean surface boundary layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr. doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-15-0172.1
  • Scanlon, B. and B. Ward, 2016. The influence of environmental parameters on active and maturing oceanic whitecaps. J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1002/2015JC011230.
  • Drushka, K., W. E. Asher, B. Ward, and K. Walesby, 2016. Understanding the formation and evolution of rain-formed fresh lenses at the ocean surface. J. Geophys. Res., 121. doi:10.1002/2015JC011527
  • Boutin, J., Y. Chao, W. E. Asher, T. Delcroix, R. Drucker, K. Drushka, N. Kolodziejczyk, T. Lee, N. Reul, G. Reverdin, J. Schanze, A. Soloviev, L. Yu, J. Anderson, L. Brucker, E. Dinnat, A. S. Garcia, L. Jones, C. Maes, T. Meissner, W. Tang, N. Vinogradova, and B. Ward, 2016. Satellite and in situ salinity: Understanding near surface stratification and sub-footprint variability. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00032.1.
  • Scanlon, B., O. Breivik, J. R. Bidlot, P. A. E. M. Janssen, A. H. Callaghan, and B. Ward, 2016. Modelling whitecap fraction with a wave model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 46:887–894. doi:10.1175/JPO-D-15-0158.1

2015

  • Wain, D. J., J. Lilly, A. H. Callaghan, I. Yashayaev, and B. Ward, 2015. A breaking internal wave in the surface ocean boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 120. doi:10/6p8
  • Walesby, K., J. Vialard, P. Minnett, A. Callaghan, and B. Ward, 2015. Observations indicative of rain-induced double diffusion in the ocean surface boundary layer. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42. doi:10.1002/2015GL063506
  • O’Sullivan, N., S. Landwehr, and B. Ward, 2015. Air-flow distortion and wave interactions: An experimental and numerical comparison. Methods Oceanogr., 12:1–17. doi:10/5cw
  • Reverdin, G., S. Morisset, L. Marié, D. Bourras, G. Sutherland, B. Ward, J. Salvador, J. Font, Y. Cuypers, L. Centurioni, V. Hormann, N. Koldziejczyk, J. Boutin, F. D’Ovidio, F. Nencioli, N. Martin, D. Diverres, and G. Alory, 2015. Meso-scales, filaments and mixing in the stratified surface ocean during the STRASSE/SPURS summer 2012 cruise. Oceanography, 28:114–123. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2015.09
  • Landwehr, S., N. O’Sullivan, and B. Ward, 2015. Direct flux measurements from mobile platforms at sea: Motion and air flow distortion corrections revisited. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 32:1163–1178. doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00137.1

2014

  • Sutherland, G., G. Reverdin, L. Marié, and B. Ward, 2014. Mixed and mixing layer depths in the ocean surface boundary layer under conditions of diurnal stratification. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41:8469–8476. doi:10.1002/2014GL061939
  • Ward, B., T. Fristedt, A. H. Callaghan, G. Sutherland, X. Sanchez, J. Vialard, and A. ten Doeschate, 2014. The Air-Sea Interaction Profiler (ASIP): An autonomous upwardly-rising profiler for microstructure measurements in the upper ocean. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 31:2246–2267. doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00010.1
  • Callaghan, A. H., B.Ward, and J. Vialard, 2014. Influence of surface forcing on nearsurface and mixing layer turbulence in the tropical Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. I, 94:107–123. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2014.08.009
  • Landwehr, S., S. D. Miller, M. J. Smith, E. S. Saltzman, and B. Ward, 2014. Analysis of the PKT correction for direct CO2 flux measurements over the ocean. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14:3361–3372. doi:10.5194/acp-14-3361-2014
  • Sutherland, G., K. H. Christensen, and B. Ward, 2014. Evaluating langmuir turbulence in the oceanic boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 119:1899–1910. doi:10/tft

2013

  • Scanlon, B. and B. Ward, 2013. Oceanic wave breaking coverage seperation techniques for active and maturing whitecaps. Methods Oceanogr., 8:1–12. doi:10.1016/j.mio.2014.03.001
  • Bell, T. G., W. De Bruyn, S. D. Miller, B. Ward, K. H. Christensen, and E. S. Saltzman, 2013. Air–sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) gas transfer in the North Atlantic: evidence for limited interfacial gas exchange at high wind speed. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13:11,073–11,087. doi:10/q6x
  • Scanlon, B., G. A. Wick, and B. Ward, 2013. Near-surface diurnal warming simulations: Validation with high resolution profile measurements. Ocean Sci., 9:1–10. doi:10/q68
  • Christensen, K. H., J. Röhr, B. Ward, I. Fer, G. Broström, Ø. Sætra, and Ø. Breivik, 2013. Surface wave measurements using ship mounted ultrasonic altimeter. Method Oceanogr., 6:1–15. doi:10/nt8
  • O’Sullivan, N., S. Landwehr, and B. Ward, 2013. Mapping flow distortion on oceanographic platforms using computational fluid dynamics. Ocean Sci., 9:855–866. doi:10/q63
  • Sutherland, G., K. H. Christensen, and B. Ward, 2013. Wave-turbulence scaling in the ocean mixed layer. Ocean Sci., 9:597–608. doi:10/q64
  • Reverdin, S. M. G., H. Bellenger, J. Boutin, N. Martin, P. Blouch, J. Rolland, F. Gaillard, P. Bouruet-Aubertot, and B. Ward, 2013. Near-sea surface temperature stratification from SVP drifters. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 30:1867–1883. doi:10/q65

2012

  • Callaghan, A. H., G. B. Deane, M. D. Stokes, and B. Ward, 2012. Observed variation in the decay time of oceanic whitecap foam. J. Geophys. Res., 117:C09015. doi:10/q66

Book Chapters

  • Walesby, K. T. and B. Ward, 2016. The impact of near-surface salinity structure on SMOS retrievals. In D. Fernández-Prieto and R. Sabia, eds., Remote Sensing Advances for Earth System Science, pp. 75–88. Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16952-1_5
  • Garbe, C. S., A. Rutgersson, J. Boutin, B. Delille, C. W. Fairall, N. Gruber, J. Hare, D. Ho, M. T. Johnson, G. de Leeuw, P. D. Nightingale, H. Pettersson, J. Piskozub, E. Sahlée, W. Tsai, B. Ward, D. K. Woolf, and C. J. Zappa, 2013. Transfer across the air-sea interface. In P. S. Liss and M. T. Johnson, eds., Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles, pp. 55–112. Springer Earth System Sciences. doi:10/q6m

Conference Published Proceedings

  • Esters, L., S. Landwehr, G. Sutherland, T. G. Bell, E. S. Saltzman, K. H. Christensen, S. D. Miller, and B. Ward, 2016. The relationship between ocean surface turbulence and air-sea gas transfer velocity: An in-situ evaluation. In A. Jessup and W. Asher, eds., Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces. IoP.
  • Ward, B., S. Landwehr, G. Sutherland, N. O’Sullivan, B. Scanlon, A. H. Callaghan, X. Sanchez, K. Christensen, G. Broström, J. Lilly, S. Miller, N. Mitchell, and E. A. Terray, 2012. Developing techniques for studying the surface ocean-lower atmosphere system. In L. Ouwehand, ed., Proceedings of the ESA, SOLAS & EGU Joint Conference, Earth Observation for Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Science, volume 703, p. 11. European Space Agency, Noordwijk, Netherlands

Conference and Workshop Presentations

2017

  •  Esters, L., B. Ward, S. Landwehr, G. Sutherland, Ø. Breivik, J. Bidlot, K. Christensen, and A. ten Doeschate, 2017. Evaluation of scaling approaches for the oceanic turbulence at the air-sea interface. SOLAS Workshop Frontiers in Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction: Air-Sea Fluxes of Mass and Energy, Cargèse, France
  •  ten Doeschate, A., G. Sutherland, S. Landwehr, K.H. Christensen, and B. Ward, 2017. The ocean response to rainfall: A case study. SOLAS Workshop Frontiers in Ocean- Atmosphere Interaction: Air-Sea Fluxes of Mass and Energy, Cargèse, France
  •  Landwehr, S., B. Scanlon, L. Esters, T. Bell, S.D. Miller, E. Saltzman, M. Smith, K.H. Christensen, and B. Ward, 2017. Can sea state influence the air sea gas exchange of CO2? SOLAS Workshop Frontiers in Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction: Air-Sea Fluxes of Mass and Energy, Cargèse, France
  • Bell, T. G., S. Landwehr, S. D. Miller, W. D. Bruyn, A. H. Callaghan, B. Scanlon, B. Ward, M. Yang, and E. S. Saltzman, 2017. Air/sea gas transfer: Influence of waves and bubbles. SOLAS Workshop Frontiers in Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction: Air-Sea Fluxes of Mass and Energy, Cargèse, France
  • Giunta, V. and B. Ward, 2017. The role of the mixed layer depth on air-sea fluxes as determined with the air-sea interaction profiler (ASIP) in the North Atlantic. SOLAS Workshop Frontiers in Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction: Air-Sea Fluxes of Mass and Energy, Cargèse, France

2016

  • Bourassa, M. A., T. Tanhua, C. A. Clayson, J. Edson, S. T. Gille, S. K. Gulev, J. Johannessen, S. A. Josey, M. Kubota, M. Mazloff, S. Swart, B. Ward, R. Weller, and L. Yu, 2016. Roles of air/sea exchange in the cycles of energy, moisture and CO2. Global Climate Observation: the Road to the Future, Amsterdam, Netherland
  • Esters, L., B. Ward, G. Sutherland, A. T. Doeschate, S. Landwehr, T. Bell, and K. Christensen, 2016. Evaluation of scaling approaches for the oceanic dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy in the surface ocean. Ocean Sciences, New Orleans, USA
  • Sutherland, G., L. Marié, G. Reverdin, K. Christensen, G. Broström, and B. Ward, 2016. Enhanced turbulence associated with the diurnal jet in the ocean surface boundary layer. Ocean Sciences, New Orleans, USA
  • Ward, B., G. Sutherland, A. ten Doeschate, L. Esters, and K. Christensen, 2016. Estimates of mixed and mixing layer depths from ASIP. Ocean Sciences, New Orleans, USA
  • Rabault, J., G. Sutherland, A. Jensen, K. Christensen, B. Ward, A. Marchenko, E. Morozov, O. Gundersen, T. Halsne, and E. Lindstrøm, 2016. Wave measurements in landfast ice in Svalbard: Evolution of wave propagation following wind waves to swell transition. Ocean Sciences, New Orleans, USA

2015

  • ten Doeschate, A., B. Ward, and G. Sutherland, 2015. Diurnal warm layer model validation with microstructure measurements. SOLAS Open Science Conference, Kiel, Germany
  • Esters, L., B. Ward, and G. Sutherland, 2015. Evaluation of scaling approaches for the oceanic dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy at the air-sea interface. SOLAS Open Science Conference, Kiel, Germany
  • Scanlon, B. and B. Ward, 2015. The influence of environmental parameters on active and maturing oceanic whitecaps. SOLAS Open Science Conference, Kiel, Germany
  • Bell, T. G., S. Landwehr, M. Yang, B. Ward, S. D. Miller, A. Callaghan, B. Scanlon, W. D. Bruyn, C. S. Law, M. J. Smith, and E. S. Saltzman, 2015. Quantifying the effect of bubbles upon air/sea gas exchange. SOLAS Open Science Conference, Kiel, Germany
  • Esters, L., B. Ward, S. Landwehr, G. Sutherland, T. Bell, E. Saltzman, and S. Miller, 2015. In situ evaluation of the relationship between ocean surface turbulence and air-sea gas transfer velocity. 7th International Symposium on Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces, Seattle, USA
  • Ward, B., G. Sutherland, G. Reverdin, L. Marie, K. Christensen, G. Brostrom, R. Harcourt, , and O. Breivik, 2015. Ocean surface observations of the diurnal cycle of turbulence with ASIP. EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria
  • ten Doeschate, A., B. Ward, G. Sutherland, J. Font, , and G. Reverdin, 2015. Diurnal warming observations with ASIP in the subtropical northern atlantic. EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria
  • Walesby, K., B. Ward, J. Vialard, , and P. Minnett, 2015. Observations of a downward mixing of rainfall with the ASIP microstructure profiler. EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria
  • Ward, B., G. Sutherland, G. Reverdin, L. Marié, K. Christensen, G. Bröstrom, R. Harcourt, and Ø. Breivik, 2015. Observations of the diurnal cycle of near surface dissipation and shear. 19th Conference on Air-Sea Interaction, Phoenix, USA
  • Landwehr, S., N. O’Sullivan, and B. Ward, 2015. A revised motion and tilt correction for direct air-sea flux measurements. 19th Conference on Air-Sea Interaction, Phoenix, USA
  • Scanlon, B., S. Miller, and B. Ward, 2015. Actively breaking and maturing oceanic whitecap observations. 19th Conference on Air-Sea Interaction, Phoenix, USA

2014

  • ten Doeschate, A., G. Sutherland, J. Font, G. Reverdin, and B. Ward, 2014. Near-surface measurements in the subtropical Northern Atlantic: Heat exchange and salinity variability. Earth Observation for Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Science, Frascati, Italy
  • Scanlon, B., S. Miller, and B. Ward, 2014. Oceanic whitecaps: Actively breaking and maturing whitecaps. Earth Observation for Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Science, Frascati, Italy
  • Sutherland, G., G. Reverdin, L. Marié, G. Bröström, K. Christensen, and B. Ward, 2014. Diurnal evolution of turbulence in the ocean surface boundary layer. Earth Observation for Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Science, Frascati, Italy
  • Esters, L., J. Lilly, and B. Ward, 2014. Simultaneous observations of diurnal warming and a convective event in the labrador sea. Earth Observation for Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Science, Frascati, Italy
  • Landwehr, S., N. O’Sullivan, G. Sutherland, A. ten Doeschate, J. Font, and B. Ward, 2014. Shipborne direct flux measurements of CO2: Advanced motion correction. Earth Observation for Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Science, Frascati, Italy
  • Bell, T., M.-X. Yang, E. Saltzman, W. de Bruyn, C. Marandino, S. Miller, C. Law, M. Smith, K. Christensen, and B. Ward, 2014. Direct eddy covariance measurements of dimethylsulfide air/sea gas transfer in the southern ocean. Earth Observation for Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Science, Frascati, Italy
  • O’Sullivan, N., S. Miller, and B. Ward, 2014. Flow distortion error with wind/wave interactions using computational fluid dynamics. Earth Observation for Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Science, Frascati, Italy
  • de Almeida, J. L., B. Ward, P. J. Bresnahan Jr., P. Maguire, and T. R. Martz, 2014. Micro-fluidic dynamics in the micro-rosette for in situ measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon. Ocean Sciences, Honolulu, USA
  • Bresnahan Jr., P. J., T. R. Martz, J. L. de Almeida, P. Maguire, and B. Ward, 2014. The development of a micro-rosette for low-volume, low-power, in situ profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon. Ocean Sciences, Honolulu, USA
  • ten Doeschate, A., G. Sutherland, K.Walseby, G. Reverdin, J. Font, and B. Ward, 2014. Upper ocean variability of temperature, salinity and dissipation during SPURS. Ocean Sciences, Honolulu, USA
  • Font, J., B. Ward, M. Emelianov, J. Busecke, and S. Morisset, 2014. SPURS-MIDAS Cruise in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum, March-April 2013. Ocean Sciences, Honolulu, USA
  • Landwehr, S., S. Miller, M. Smith, E. Saltzman, and B. Ward, 2014. Analysis of the PKT correction for direct CO2 flux measurements over the ocean. Ocean Sciences, Honolulu, USA
  • O’Sullivan, N., S. Landwehr, S. Miller, and B. Ward, 2014. Mapping flow distortion on oceanographic research vessels using computational fluid dynamics. Ocean Sciences, Honolulu, USA
  • Paskyabi, M. B., B. Ward, and I. Fer, 2014. Observational and numerical study of wave-turbulence interaction near the sea surface. Ocean Sciences, Honolulu, USA
  • Scanlon, B. and B. Ward, 2014. Discriminating between active and maturing oceanic whitecaps. Ocean Sciences, Honolulu, USA
  • Sutherland, G., B. Ward, and K. Christensen, 2014. Evaluating turbulence regimes in the ocean surface boundary layer: Measurements from a vertically rising microstructure profiler. Ocean Sciences , Honolulu, USA
  • Walesby, K. T., B. Ward, and J. Vialard, 2014. Observations of double diffusion in the upper ocean. Ocean Sciences, Honolulu, USA
  • Ward, B., G. Sutherland, S. Landwehr, S. Miller, E. Saltzman, and T. Bell, 2014. Relationship between air-sea gas transfer velocities k derived from eddy covariance direct flux measurements and ocean surface dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy  produced by an upwardly-rising microstructure profiler. Ocean Sciences, Honolulu, USA

2013

  • Ward, B., G. Sutherland, A. ten Doeschate, G. Reverdin, and J. Font, 2013. Upper ocean profiles of surface salinity from the air-sea interaction profiler. SMOS & Aquarius Science Workshop, Brest, France
  • Wain, D., B. Ward, J. Lilly, and A. Callaghan, 2013. Breaking internal waves on the pycnocline of the labrador sea. EGU2013-10039, European Geosciences Union General Assembly

2012

  • Landwehr, S., S. Miller, E. Saltzman, and B. Ward, 2012. Eddy covariance air-sea CO2 flux measurements using closed path IR gas analysers. SOLAS Open Science Conference, Cle Elum, WA, USA
  • de Almeida, J. L., B.Ward, J. Shutler, C. Gentemann, Z. A.Wang, and P. J. Bresnahan, 2012. On the inclusion of the ocean’s diurnal warming effect for the global air-sea net budget estimation. SOLAS Open Science Conference, Cle Elum, WA, USA
  • Broström, G., K. H. Christensen, B.Ward, J. Röhrs, M. Drivdal, G. Sutherland, Ø. Sætra, L. R. Hole, S. Sundby, and I. Fer, 2012. Waves, mixing, and drift in the upper ocean. Ocean Sciences, Salt Lake City, USA
  • Christensen, K. H., J. Röhrs, B. Ward, M. Drivdal, and G. Broström, 2012. Surface wave measurements using ship mounted ultrasonic altimeter. Ocean Sciences, Salt Lake City, USA
  • Sutherland, G., B.Ward, K. H. Christensen, J. Röhrs, Ø. Sætra, G. Broström, M. Drivdal, and X. Sanchez, 2012. Scaling turbulence in the upper ocean: Measurements from a vertically rising microstructure profiler. Ocean Sciences, Salt Lake City, USA
  • Ward, B., A. H. Callaghan, G. Sutherland, S. Miller, K. H. Christensen, G. Broström, Ø. Sætra, and J. Lilly, 2012. Response of upper ocean to forcing parameters. Ocean Sciences, Salt Lake City, USA